Process of milking and important points/precaution for clean milk production

~Shahnur Rahman…


Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other type of food.

Cow milk contains:-    water                   86.5%

Milk sugar(lactose)      4.8%

Fat                     4.5%

Protein                  3.5%

Vitamins and minerals   0.7%


There are mainly two methods of milking:-

  1. Hand milking- a) Full hand dry milking or fisting . b) Stripping. c) Knuckling.
  2. Machine milking.

 Full hand dry milking or fisting .

Full hand dry milking or fisting consist of grasping the teat with thumb and index finger and encircling the teat at the base, closing of the teat cistern pressure and forcing the milk out by closing the other finger tip against the palm of the hand. As the hand is opened the teat cavity / cistern gets filled up with milk again from the gland cistern and second stream of milk can be obtained following the same procedure. This method is superior and removes milk much quickly than other methods of milking.


Many milker during milking tend to bend their thumb against the teat. This method is known as knuckling. This method should be avoided to prevent injury to the teat tissues.


The stripping consists of grasping the teat at the base between thumb and index finger. The teat canal/cistern is closed by putting pressure and sliding the pressure towards the end o the teat in order to cause milk to flow down in a stream. Quick stripping is generally done towards the end of every methods to draw the milk completely.

Machine milking

In the big arm where the number o cows are more milking mechine are used or milking. This saves the time and milking is done quickly and efficiently without injuring the udder.

Factors affecting quality and quantity of milk production.

  • Species, Breed
  • Environmental stress, Plan of nutrition
  • Body weight of cow/size of cow
  • Stage of lactation, Parity(order of lactation)
  • Season
  • Completeness of milking, health status, milking time etc.

Important points/precaution in milking for production of clean milk.

  • Keep only healthy cows and cows should be neat and clean.
  • The cows should not be abused or exited or frightened prior to milking.
  • Cows should be milked at regular interval of time and by the same person.
  • The hand of the milker should clean and dry and should be free from any contagious diseases.
  • The water supply of the milk house must be pure and clean.
  • Any Bitter, salty, thick, bloody milk from cows late in lactation should be discarded.
  • The milking barn should be clean. Protect the milk from dust, flies and any insets.
  • Wash the udder properly before milking. Massaged the udder for at least 30 seconds for quick let down of milk. Use clean cloth and chlorine solution.
  • At first, few drops of milk from each teats should be collected and examine for the presence of clots which will indicate mastitis.
  • The milker’s hand should be clean and dry, fingernails trimmed. Wear clean clothes while milking. Milk stools should be clean.
  • If milking machine is used, it should be cleaned and free from bacteria and any germs to avoid contamination.
  • The diseased or suspected cow should be milked at last to reduce spread of disease.
  • The cows should be milked completely, quickly and cleanly within 6-7 minutes.
  • Immediately after milking, cows should not be allow to lie down.
  • Remove the milk from the barn as soon as it is taken from the cow.
  • Keep insects, rodents, birds, dogs and cats or any pets away from the milk house.
  • Sterilize all equipments used for milking. Use clean cans for keeping milk. Never put milk into dirty or bad smelling cans.
  • Cans should not be racked and rusty and should be well tinned.
  • Cool the milk as quickly as possible to 50F.
  • Cover the filled cans with clean lids while stored.
  • Protect cans of milk waiting at the roadside and during transportation against dust and direct rays of the sun. With an open truck use a wet blanket over the cans during the summer. An enclosed truck is best.

For better quality and more quantity of milk production all these points/precautions should be adopted. These will help in clean milk production and milk will be healthy and free from all the micro organisms.

So, every farm and rural people should follow these practices.


Author:- Shahnur Rahman, 2nd Year, B.V.Sc. & A. H., Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Joyhing, North Lakhimpur, Assam- 787051, India.
Email ID:, Cell: +91-9957625850.


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